Taxpayers should find out if they need to make estimated or additional tax payments

The U.S. tax system operates on a pay-as-you-go basis. This means that taxpayers need to pay most of their tax during the year, as the income is earned or received. Estimated tax is the method used to pay tax on income that is not subject to withholding. This income includes earnings from self-employment, interest, dividends, rents, and alimony. Taxpayers who do not choose to have taxes withheld from other taxable income should also make estimated tax payments. This other income includes unemployment compensation and the taxable part of Social Security benefits. Taxpayers must generally pay at least 90 percent of their taxes throughout the year through withholding, estimated or additional tax payments or a combination of the two. If they don’t, they may owe an estimated tax penalty when they file.  .

Here are some examples of people who may need to make estimated tax payments:

Individuals – including sole proprietors, partners and S corporation shareholders – may need to pay quarterly installments of estimated tax if:

  • they expect to owe at least $1,000 when they file their tax return
  • they owed additional tax when they filed their tax return last year

Other taxpayers who may need to make estimated payments include those who:

  • have more than one job, but don’t have each employer withhold taxes
  • are self-employed
  • are independent contractors
  • are representatives of a direct-sales or in-home-sales company
  • participate in sharing economy activities where they are not working as employees

Here’s how and when to pay estimated taxes

For tax-year 2018, the remaining estimated tax payment due dates are Sept. 17, 2018 and Jan. 15, 2019.

Here are some things to know for taxpayers who make estimated payments:

  • Taxpayers can pay their taxes throughout the year anytime. They must select the tax year and tax type or form when paying electronically.
  • Filers paying by check should make it out to the “United States Treasury” and indicate the tax year and type of taxes they are paying.
  • Taxpayers in presidentially-declared disaster areas may have more time to make these payments without penalty.
  • For easy and secure ways to make estimated tax payments, use is IRS Direct Pay or the Electronic Federal Tax Payment has information on all payment options.
  • Taxpayers can find more information about tax withholding and estimated tax at the Pay As You Go page
  • Taxpayers who pay taxes through a combination of withholding and estimated tax payments should do a Paycheck Checkup. They can do a checkup using the Withholding Calculator on Doing so now can help the taxpayer avoid an unexpected tax bill and possibly a penalty when the taxpayer’s 2018 tax return is filed next year
  • Publication 505, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax, is another resource for taxpayers. Publication 505 has worksheets and examples, which can help taxpayers determine whether they should pay estimated tax.

More Information:
Publication 505, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax
Form 1040-ES, Estimated Tax for Individuals
Tax Reform

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